Buckeye Dairy News: Volume 3 Issue 4

  1. Is Your Herd Positioned for Profit?

    John M. Smith, Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Community Development Agent, The Ohio State University Extension 
    Auglaize County

    Is Your Herd Positioned for Profit? 
    John M. Smith 
    OSU Extension, Auglaize County 
    Agriculture & NRCD

    With the current price of milk, dairymen must take a serious look at their operations. A total effort must be made to reduce costs and improve profits. Herds that produce profit usually have many things in common:

    1. Good Forages  Forage quality must be consistent and high quality. It is very expensive to upgrade poor forages with other feeds.

    2. Clean, Fresh Water Water is the cheapest most important nutrient and the one most often ignored. Big, high producing cows will drink up to 50 gallons per day in the summer. A good place to have a water tank is in the parlor return alley. Many cows will drink heavily returning from the parlor. Cows will drink more warm water (70oF) than they will cold water (55oF). If they won't or can't drink water, they can't make milk. At times it helps to add water to rations. Many herds do add up to 5 pounds of water per cow to the total mixed ration and find that the cows eat the feed better. However, try to keep the ration consistent at about 50% moisture.

    3. Low Somatic Cell Count and Good Milking Techniques  High SCCs indicate hidden production losses and could be due to many causes: poor milking habits; milking equipment not working properly; free stalls that need cleaned, repaired, bedded or not designed properly; untreated mastitis, etc.

    4. Good Genetics  The genetics of a herd can make a 25% difference in production. AI all heifers and cows.

    5. Good Heat Detection  Without it you cannot have a successful breeding program.

    6. Maintain and Use Accurate Records  Records of production, financial, herd health, breeding and feeding. Without the use of good records, a herd manager is lost.

    7. Know How Much You Are Feeding and Where It Is Going  Errors of up to 25% are common on some farms. This is not only expensive, but can be very wasteful. A mixer with a scale can be one of your best management tools. Many farms have a 10-15% feed wastage at the feed bunk due to improper design or repair of the feed bunk.

    8. Have a Sound Dry Cow Program  This part of the lactation/gestation is extremely important to the next lactation. If a cow does not calve properly, due to a poor dry cow program, she will not milk well or breed back easily. This is one area that is too often ignored.

    9. Cull Unprofitable Cows  If a cow is not making you money, you can't afford to keep her.

  2. Environmental Streptococcal Mastitis

    J. S. Hogan and K. L. Smith, Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University


    Environmental streptococci have emerged as pathogens that uniquely affect mammary health as a primary cause of both subclinical and clinical mastitis. The bovine mammary gland appears to be most susceptible to environmental streptococcal intramammary infections during the dry period and early lactation. The importance of the dry period in control of environmental streptococcal mastitis can not be over emphasized. Rate of new IMI during the dry period is 5.5 fold greater than the rate during lactation in a total confinement herds practicing total dry cow therapy. The rate of new infection is not constant across the dry period, but is elevated during the 2 weeks following drying off and the 2 weeks prior to calving. Dry cow therapy reduces the rate of new environmental streptococcal infections during the early dry period. The high rates of new infection following drying off may relate to the lack of flushing action due to milking, changes occurring in the composition of the mammary secretion that appear to enhance streptococcal growth , and/or the lack of a keratin plug in the streak canal. The increase in susceptibility to infection in the two weeks prior to parturition may reflect the absence of milking when the gland is accumulating fluid, loss of keratin plugs from streak canals, or immunosuppression associated with the pariparturient period. Conventional dry cow therapy has no effect on rates of infection prior to calving and prepartum teat dipping was reported to be of little or no value. The environmental streptococci are a frequent cause of mastitis in heifers at calving and heifers generally suffer as many infections at calving as do older cows.

    During lactation, the incidence of clinical mastitis is greatest the first week after calving and decreased throughout the first 305 d in milk. Interestingly, rate of environmental streptococcal clinical cases increases in cows with extended lactations (>305 d) to that comparable of cows in peak lactation. Therefore, the use of management practices that encourage the use of extended calving intervals, thus a larger percentage of cows with > 305 d in milk, may impact the prevalence of environmental streptococcal mastitis in a herd.